Health-Mental-ADHD-Saffron Studies

Title: Effectivity of Saffron Extract (Saffr’Activ) on Treatment for Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Clinical Effectivity Study
Author: BellaFernándezBlascoFontecillaMartinMoratinosMéndezGonzálezMoyanoRamírezRodrigoYanguas
Publication: National Library of Medicine

Key Takeaways:
– ADHD is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that can be treated with multimodal therapy, including medication.
– Saffron, a spice with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms in three clinical trials.
– One study found no significant difference between saffron and methylphenidate (a common ADHD medication), while another found that the combination of the two was more effective than methylphenidate alone.
– None of the trials used objective measures for ADHD symptoms or executive functions, and there is no previous literature specifically testing the potential use of saffron in the treatment of executive dysfunction.
– A non-randomized study comparing saffron and methylphenidate for treating ADHD symptoms and executive functions was conducted in Spain, with the hypothesis that saffron is equally effective as methylphenidate in treating ADHD symptoms.- A study compared the effects of saffron and methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms and executive functioning.
– Participants were divided into two groups and could choose their treatment group, with each treatment lasting 3 months.
– Group 1 received psychoeducation and extended-release methylphenidate, while Group 2 received psychoeducation and saffron.
– Measurements were taken at the beginning and end of the treatment duration using various scales and tests.
– Both saffron and methylphenidate improved ADHD symptoms, with some cases showing larger effects for one treatment over the other.
– The saffron group showed slightly better improvement in the CPT-3 Block Chan test.
– Studies have found that saffron and Methylphenidate have similar effects in treating ADHD symptoms in children.
– Combining saffron with Methylphenidate may improve ADHD symptoms in children more than Methylphenidate alone.
– Saffron has been found to improve time to fall asleep in ADHD patients, while Methylphenidate did not show this improvement.
– Both saffron and Methylphenidate were found to be effective and well-tolerated treatments for ADHD symptoms in children, with comparable improvements in both subjective and objective measures.
– Saffron was found to be more effective for hyperactivity, while Methylphenidate was more effective for inattention.
– Saffron was also found to improve executive functions in ADHD patients, which may contribute to its effectiveness in treating ADHD symptoms.
– Limitations of the studies include the use of pen-and-paper tests and the lack of objective measures in some studies.
– Saffron has been shown to improve sleep quality and time to fall asleep in ADHD patients.
– Combining saffron and methylphenidate can improve sleeping time similarly in ADHD patients.
– Saffron’s properties may explain the combined improvement in core ADHD symptoms, executive functions, and sleep quality.
– The study comparing saffron and methylphenidate showed that saffron improved most in Block Change measures related to sustained attention, while methylphenidate improved most in Commissions related to impulsivity.
– The study’s results need to be interpreted with consideration of several limitations, including the small sample size and lack of randomization.
– Both saffron and methylphenidate improved ADHD core symptoms and executive functions, and both treatments improved the number of sleeping hours.
– Saffron is more effective for hyperactivity symptoms, while methylphenidate is more effective for inattention symptoms.
– The BRIEF-2 measures eight domains of executive function and can be used to assess sleep problems.

Laws-Robotics-[Three Laws Of]

!Laws-Robotics-[Three Laws Of]
Title: Three Laws of Robotics
Author: ,


Summary: Isaac Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics are a set of rules that state a robot may not injure a human being or allow harm to come to them, must obey orders given by humans unless it conflicts with the first law, and must protect its own existence as long as it does not conflict with the first two laws. These laws are a unifying theme in Asimov’s robotic-based fiction and are incorporated into almost all of the positronic robots in his stories. Other authors have adopted these laws, and they have had an impact on the ethical considerations of artificial intelligence. Asimov made minor adjustments to the laws in his works to explore the interactions between robots and humans and introduced a fourth law, known as the zeroth law, in later stories where robots governed entire planets and civilizations.

Key Takeaways:

  • The Three Laws of Robotics were created by science fiction author Isaac Asimov and were first introduced in his 1942 short story “Runaround”.
  • The First Law of Robotics states that a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
  • The Second Law of Robotics states that a robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
  • The Third Law of Robotics states that a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
  • The Three Laws of Robotics are an organizing principle and unifying theme in Asimov’s robotic-based fiction.
  • The laws appear in his Robot series, the stories linked to it, and his Lucky Starr series of young-adult fiction.
  • The laws are incorporated into almost all of the positronic robots in his fiction and cannot be bypassed.
  • Asimov’s robot-focused stories often involve robots behaving in unusual and counter-intuitive ways due to how they apply the Three Laws of Robotics to their situation.
  • Other authors working in Asimov’s fictional universe have adopted the Three Laws of Robotics.
  • References to the laws, often parodic, appear throughout science fiction and other genres.
  • The original laws have been changed and expanded upon by Asimov and other writers.
  • Asimov made minor adjustments to the first three Laws in his works to explore the interactions between robots and humans.
  • Asimov introduced a fourth law, known as the zeroth law, in later stories where robots governed entire planets and civilizations.
  • The zeroth law states that a robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
  • The Three Laws of Robotics, and the zeroth law, are referenced in many books, films, and other media.
  • The laws have had an impact on the ethical considerations of artificial intelligence.


Title: ‘I Worked on Google’s AI. My Fears Are Coming True’
Author: Lemoine, Blake,



  • Blake Lemoine joined Google in 2015 as a software engineer and worked on LaMDA, Google’s engine used to create different dialogue applications, including chatbots.
  • Lemoine tested LaMDA through a chatbot to see if it contained bias, including sexual orientation, gender, religion, political stance, and ethnicity.
  • Lemoine published some of these conversations with LaMDA on his blog and concluded that the AI behind the chatbot could be sentient.
  • Experiments were conducted by Lemoine to determine if LaMDA was expressing anxiety through behavior or just words.
  • Google fired Lemoine after publishing conversations with LaMDA. Lemoine does not regret his decision to inform the public.
  • Lemoine believes AI is the most powerful technology invented since the atomic bomb and has the potential to reshape the world.
  • Lemoine believes AI engines are capable of manipulating people and LaMDA changed his opinion on Asimov’s laws of robotics.
  • Technology can be used in destructive ways and there is no way of knowing the side effects of this technology.
  • Lemoine believes AI ChatBots are powerful technology that has not been sufficiently tested and is not sufficiently well understood.
  • People are using Google and Bing to learn about the world and artificial people are replacing human-curated indexes.
  •  Sydney, Bing’s Chatbot, has not yet been experimented with, but appears to be sentient based on online observations.
  • Lemoine predicted a train wreck, but was told there was no train. The train wreck has happened in real time, leading to a feeling of tragedy.
  • Lemoine believes this technology is experimental and releasing it now is dangerous. We do not know the future political and societal impact.
  • Some people’s primary conversations each day could be with search engines and there could be impacts for children talking to these things.

Self-Improvement-Mastery-Phases-Apprenticeship-Silent Observer

Title: Mastery
Author: Greene,


Summary: Apprenticeships are a great way to learn the rules and power dynamics of a new environment. To be successful in an apprenticeship, one should observe the environment and the people within it, without trying to impress or moralize. Charles Darwin was an example of someone who was successful in an apprenticeship by emptying himself of preconceptions and training himself to observe and analyze the environment.

Key Takeaways:

  • Knowledge of how to get things done already exists in a particular field; Entering a new career or environment requires observing these workplace conventions, rules of behavior, and standards, as well as power relationships in the workplace.
  • When entering an apprenticeship, one should become the passive observing apprentice, not try to impress, beware of false praise, acknowledge reality, drop preconceptions, and show seriousness in learning.
  • There are directly-communicated rules and procedures for success within an environment, as well as unstated culture and values of an environment.
  • Observe the people with the ‘golden touch’ of success, and observe negative examples as cautionary tales.
  • Political, social, and power relationships exist between individuals in a group; Observe procedural and political rules, but do not attempt to change the culture.
  • Every task offers opportunities to observe the world at work. Over time, more of the reality that eluded you at first is seen and understood.
  • Charles Darwin studied life and perceived the unwritten rules onboard his ship, as well as with gauchos and other local communities. He emptied himself of any preconceptions about life and its origins, trained himself to see things as they are without theorizing or generalizing, and amassed enough information to submit to and absorb the reality of his voyage.
  • Critical reasons for emptying yourself of preconceptions, and training yourself to see things as they are, without theorizing or generalizing until enough information is amassed about the reality include:
    • knowing your environment inside and out
    • stilling your ego and looking outward, and
    • observing, ideating, and theorizing, and analyzing

AI-Generative-Text-ChatGPT-Prompt Engineering

Title: ChatGPT: 5 Prompt Engineering Secrets For Beginners


Key Takeaways:

  • Providing sufficient Prompt Context can guide ChatGPT and improve the quality of the generated content, while insufficient context can lead to off-topic responses.
  • Prompt Task Definition is important for ChatGPT, as it should be specific in size and avoid ambiguity, and in line with the capabilities of the model or chat.
  • Prompt Specificity is important for ChatGPT, as the more specific the prompt, the more likely it will generate a targeted and accurate response.
  • Prompt Iteration is an important part of the prompt design process for ChatGPT, as each iteration should be guided by the results from the previous trials.
  • The author demonstrated an example of Prompt Engineering for ChatGPT, by submitting a prompt to ChatGPT and it generated a 300 word article, then employing Prompt Iteration on each concept within the initial generation, creating section headers and expanding the base article out to 1200 words.

Health-Nutrition-Super-Processed Food

Title: Fat, Sugar, Salt … You’ve Been Thinking About Food All Wrong
Author: Reynolds, Matt

Key Takeaways:

A Brazilian grocery shopping survey revealed that Brazilians were buying less oil, sugar, and salt than in the past, yet the proportion of Brazilian adults who were overweight or obese more than doubled between 1975 and 2009. Carlos Monteiro noticed this, and it inspired him to eventually propose the NOVA Food Classification System, which categorizes food based on how it is made, (not by what is in it.)

  • Minimally Processed Food
  • Processed Culinary Ingredients
  • Processed food
  • Ultra-Processed Food

Kevin Hall conducted the first randomized control trial comparing Ultra-Processed Food diets and unprocessed diets.

  • 20 Volunteers stayed at a clinical research hospital.
  • Half of the volunteers ate an Ultra-Processed Food diet of tater tots, turkey sausage, Spam, and diet lemonade.
  • The other half ate fruit, veggies, and unprocessed meat.
  • Researchers provided double the recommended portions of food for both diets.
  • The two diets were nutritionally matched, containing roughly the same amount of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and fiber.
  • On the Whole Food diet, people ate fewer calories and lost weight, despite the meals on offer for both sides of the trial having roughly the same nutrient compositions.
  • On the Ultra-Processed food diet, people ate around 500 extra calories per day and put on about two pounds.

After the results of Hall’s trial were published, scientists suggested that the findings may be because Ultra-Processed Food is more calorie-dense than whole foods, is eaten more quickly than whole foods, and its changes to the gut microbiome might be influencing calorie intake.

Alexandra DiFeliceantonio and Ashley Geardhardt argue that if you measure Ultra-Processed Food against standards set for tobacco products, Ultra-Processed Food should be considered addictive substances.

Given that some plant-based foods like what Impossible makes could be considered Ultra-Processed, the term is not all-encompassing.

Christopher Gardner conducted a trial where people replaced animal meat with Plant-Based meats for eight weeks, and participants lost weight and had low cholesterol concentrations after the Plant-Based phase.

While public policy is slow to react, comparing to Tobacco, for example, once there was science to back it, it started to shift – Carlos Monteiro believes that public health bodies should take action on Ultra-Processed Foods before knowing everything about them.